verb tenses

conditional tense

To say, would you add an ia to the verb’s infinitive. The irregulars are not that difficult to learn.

Ele trabalharia hoje mas... (He would work today but...)

O que ele diria? (What would he say?)

Eu falaria, sim. (I would say, yes.)


future subjunctive

Use the future subjunctive tense to talk about things that are likely to happen, but that have not yet occurred.

Me liga quando você chegar. (Call me when you arrive.)

Se eu ver ela te aviso. (If I see her I'll let you know.)

Assim que comprar um carro vou lá. (As soon as I buy a car I'll go there.)

Words that almost always trigger this tense:
quando + verb (when you…)
se + verb (if you…)
assim que (as soon as…)


future subjunctive – irregular verbs

These are the most common irregulars in the future subjunctive tense.

ter » Se voce tiver tempo me liga. If you have time, call me.

fazer » Se voce fizer um bolo vou ficar feliz. If you make a cake I'll be happy!

querer » Se voce quiser eu pago. If you want, I'll pay.

ir » Quando eu for ao centro. When I go downtown.

ser » Se for um bom preço eu compraria. If it were a good price I'd buy it.

estar » Me fala quando voce estiver pronto. Tell me when you're ready.


imperative mood

» For AR regular verbs you just replace the a with an e.
» For ER & IR regular verbs you just replace the e with an a.

Forming

-ar regular verbs

Tell me everything! Me cont e tudo!
Stop! Par e!
Think again! Pens e bem!

-er and -ir regular verbs

Get out of here! Sum a daqui!
Open this door! Abr a essa porta!
Learn this! Aprend a isso!
Answer me! Me respond a!
Some very common examples use the TU form (read the post for more explanation):

esperar » Me espera! (Wait for me!)

olhar » Olha só! (Just look!)

escutar » Escuta! (Listen!)

tirar » Tira sua mão! (Hands off!)

falar » Fala tu! (Talk to me!)

ligar » Me liga! (Call me!)

ter » Vem cá! (Come here!)


imperfect indicative tense

The imperfect indicative is used when talking about continuous or ongoing action in the past. Something that used to happen or, would (always) happen.
*Also called the Preterit Imperfect tense.

» Eu trabalhava no Banco do Brasil.

Or,

When I was younger I would always drink a few beers before going to a party.

» Quando eu era mais jovem eu sempre bebia umas cervejas antes de sair pra festa.

Things that used to happen or, would (always) happen, entendeu?

Forming
-ar regular verbs

I used to work eu trabalh ava
he used to work ele trabalh ava
we used to work nós trabalh ávamos
they used to work eles trabalh avam

-er and -ir regular verbs

I used to eat eu com ia
he used to eat ele com ia
we used to eat nós com íamos
they used to eat eles com iam

ar verbs > Trabalhava nessa empresa. (I used to work at that company.)

er verbs > Eu bebia todos os dias. (I used to drink every day.)

ir verbs > Eu dormia bem. (I used to sleep well.)

*Also called the Preterite Imperfect


imperfect subjunctive

Use the imperfect subjunctive tense to talk about things that are extremely unlikely to have happened or happen.
*Also called the Preterit Imperfect or, the Past Subjunctive.

Se eu soubesse... (If I knew / were to know...)

Se você falasse... (If you said / were to say...)

Se você tivessel... (If you had / were to have...)

It’s most often used together with the conditional:

Se eu soubesse tudo seria sábio. If I knew everything I'd be wise.

Se fosse ele eu te contaria. If it were he I would tell you.

Se eu tivesse tempo estudaria mais. If I have time I'd study more.


imperfect subjunctive + conditional

The imperfect subjunctive tense is used to talk about things that are extremely unlikely to have happened or happen. It’s most often used together with the conditional tense:

Se eu soubesse tudo seria sábio. (If I knew everything I'd be wise.)

Se fosse ele eu te contaria. (If it were he I would tell you.)

Se eu tivesse tempo estudaria mais. (If I have time I'd study more.)


imperfect tense of estar

To express was.
When talking about action in the past, use the imperfect indicative tense of estar –> estava.

Eu estava almoçando quando você ligou. (I was having lunch when you called.)

Ela estava ocupada ontem. (She was busy yesterday.)

*Don’t use this to express was for talking about permanent things in the past (I was a young boy; She was a sick baby etc.) – use ser for that.


imperfect tense of ser

The imperfect indicative is used when talking about continuous or ongoing action in the past. Something that used to happen or, would (always) happen. Ser is irregular.

The only form you need to know is this: ser > era

Ela era uma criança tranquila. (She was a quiet child.)

Era uma vez. (Once upon a time.)


imperfect tense of ter

The imperfect indicative is used when talking about continuous or ongoing action in the past. Something that used to happen or, would (always) happen. Ter is irregular.

The only form you need to know is this: ter > tinha

Eu tinha muito dinheiro. (I had lots of money.)


past participles

A past participle is just a verb conjugation that describes something that is over and done: written, said, cooked, closed etc.

A porta está aberta. (The door is opened.)

O projeto é completado. (The project is completed.)

Ela está cansada. (She's tired.)

Ele foi morto. (He was killed.)

*The endings must take the gender of the subject:
a porta está aberta
o escritório está aberto


present perfect

The Present Perfect is used to talk about action that’s on-going: what has been happening.

For example, to say things like “I’ve been working every weekend” the Present Perfect is the way to go.

Just use TER + the past participle of any verb. TER is always in the present tense.

eu > Eu tenho trabalhado todo dia. (I've been working every day.)

você > Você tem treinado? (Have you been training?)

ele/ela > Ela tem saído muito! (She's been going out a lot!)


present progressive tense

Use this to say what’s happening right now: I’m working, He’s surfing, You’re talking, etc. It’s often considered the Portuguese “ing”.

ESTAR + verb with ending:
ar verbs » ando
er verbs » endo
ir verbs » indo

-ar verbs
I’m arriving Eu estou cheg ando
Who’s talking? Quem está fal ando?
-er verbs
I’m eating. Eu estou com endo
He’s losing. Ele está perd endo
-ir verbs
I’m insisting. Eu estou insist indo
She’s driving. Ela está dirig indo
*You’ll hear this conjugation called the gerund.

Eu estou trabalhando agora. (I'm working now.)

Você está comendo açúcar? (Are you eating sugar?)

Ele está dirigindo. (He's driving.)


present subjunctive

Use the present subjunctive tense to talk about things that are plausible yet uncertain to happen right now: in the present.

Eu espero que você pense melhor. (I hope that you think better.)

Você quer que eu dirija? (Do you want me to drive?)

É importante que você aprenda. (It's important that you learn.)

Words that usually trigger this tense:
espero que (I hope that…)
quero que (I want that…)
é importante que (It’s important that…)

Forming

Take the 1st-person present root and add an:
+e for ar verbs
+a for er/ir verbs

Example: ACONTECER » Eu não quero que aconteça novamente.
the 1st-person present is: eu aconteço;
the root is aconteç;
adding an a » aconteça.

Example: FALAR » Espero que ele fale logo.
the 1st-person present is: eu falo;
the root is fal;
adding an e » fale.

Example: FAZER » Espero que ele faça.
the 1st-person present is: eu faço;
the root is faç;
adding an a » faça.


present tense

There are three main verb groups in Portuguese.

Verbs ending in -ar

falar to speak
I speak eu fal o
you/he/she speaks você/ele/ela fal a

Verbs ending in -er

entender to understand
I understand eu entend o
you/he/she understands você/ele/ela entend e

Verbs ending in -ir

partir to depart
I depart eu part o
you/he/she departs você/ele/ela part e

present tense ~ar verbs

to say, speak falar
I say eu fal o
you/he/she say(s) você/ele/ela fal a
we say nós fal amos
they/you all say eles/elas fal am

* More accurately called, the present indicative tense.


present tense ~er verbs

to eat comer
I eat eu com o
you/he/she eat(s) você/ele/ela com e
we eat nós com emos
they/you all eat eles/elas com em

* More accurately called, the present indicative tense.


present tense ~ir verbs

There aren’t many ~ir verbs. The most common include:
ir
vir
sair
cair
abrir
pedir
seguir
dormir
partir
servir
decidir
proibir
assistir
despedir
permitir
conseguir

to leave, depart partir
I leave eu part o
you/he/she leave(s) você/ele/ela part e
we leave nós part imos
they/you all leave eles/elas part em

* More accurately called, the present indicative tense.


present tense of ser

Ser is very irregular.

to be (permanent) ser
I am eu  sou
you/he/she are/is você/ele/ela  é
we are nós  somos
they/you all are eles/elas  são

* More accurately called, the present indicative tense.


present tense: descobrir, sair

Some popular irregular verbs in the present tense.

to discover descobrir
I discover eu desc ubro
you/he/she discover(s) você/ele/ela desc obre
to go out, leave sair
I leave eu sai o
you/he/she leave(s) você/ele/ela sai

* More accurately called, the present indicative tense.


present tense: perder, pedir, dormir

Some popular irregular verbs in the present tense.

to lose perder
I lose eu per co
you/he/she lose(s) você/ele/ela per de
to ask for, request pedir
I ask for eu pe ço
you/he/she ask(s) for você/ele/ela pe de
to sleep dormir
I sleep eu d urmo
you/he/she sleep(s) você/ele/ela d orme

* More accurately called, the present indicative tense.


present vs. past: pedir, ouvir

PEDIR and OUVIR have similar ~irregulr conjugations in the present and the simple past. These are very common verbs and worth remembering!

Present tense

pedir > Eu peço desculpas amiga (Excuse me my friend.)

ouvir > Eu ouço bem. (I hear well.)

Past tense

*this is the preterit indicative tense.

pedir > Eu pedi uma Coca-Cola. (I ordered a Coca-Cola.)

ouvir > Eu ouvi um barulho. (I heard a noise.)


seria

SER = to be.
Seria is the conditional form: would be.

Seria um ou dois? (Would that be one, or two?)

Seria mais difícil assim. (It would be more difficult like that.)

Seria uma ótima ideia. (it would be a great idea.)


simple past tense ~ar verbs

“simple past” = action that is over and done.
This is called, the preterit indicative tense.

to speak falar
I said eu fal ei
you/he/she said você/ele/ela fal ou
we said nós fal amos
they/you all said eles/elas fal aram

simple past tense ~er verbs

The “simple past” = action that is over and done. Officially called the Preterit Indicative tense.

to eat comer
I ate eu com i
you/he/she ate você/ele/ela com eu
we ate nós com emos
they/you all ate eles/elas com eram

(eu) Eu entendi tudo. I understood everything.

(você, ele, ela) Ele nao entendeu. He didn't understand.


simple past tense ~ir verbs

The “simple past” = action that is over and done. Officially called the Preterit Indicative tense.

to leave, depart partir
I left eu part i
you/he/she left você/ele/ela part iu
we left nós part imos
they/you all leave eles/elas part iram

(eu) Eu consegui o apartamento! I got the apartment!

(você, ele, ela) Você conseguiu o emprego! You got the job!


simple past tense: ser, ir

These two essential verbs are very irregular in the “simple past” tense. BUT – they’re exactly the same! Saying was or went, is usually written the same.

to be ser
I was eu f ui
you/he/she were (was) você/ele/ela f oi
to go ir
I went eu f ui
you/he/she went você/ele/ela f oi

IR » Foi muito bem. It went really well.

SER » Foi muito bom. It was really good.

IR » Fui! I went!

SER » A festa foi perfeita. The party was perfect.

IR » Nós fomos à praia ontem. We went to the beach yesterday.

SER » Foi um dia daqueles. It was one of those days.

IR » Eles foram fazer compras juntos. They went shopping together.

IR » Para onde ele foi? Where did she go?

* More accurately called, the preterit indicative tense.


simple past tense: ter, dizer, fazer

Some popular irregular verbs in the simple past tense.

to have ter
I had eu t ive
you/he/she had você/ele/ela t eve
to say, tell dizer
I said eu diss e
you/he/she said você/ele/ela diss e
to make, do fazer
I did eu f iz
you/he/she did você/ele/ela f ez

* More accurately called, the preterit indicative tense.


using ir to express the future

You can use ir (to go) to say where you’re going, or what you’re going to do. Either way you just need to know how to conjugate ir in the present tense. It’s (very) irregular.

present tense of ir
I go eu v ou
you/he/she go(es) você/ele/ela v ai

Use ir in the present together with any verb to talk about where you’re going.

Eu vou à praia. (I'm going to the beach.)

Eu vou ao supermercado. (I'm going to the supermarket.)

Você vai no banco? (Are you going to the bank?)

Use ir in the present together with almost any verb to talk about what you’re going to do.

Eu vou correr. (I'm going to run.)

Você vai comer? (Are you going to eat?)

Nós vamos viajar. (We're going to travel.)