verb tenses

conditional tense

To say, would you add an ia to the verb’s infinitive. The irregulars are not that difficult to learn.

Ele trabalharia hoje mas... (He would work today but...)

O que ele diria? (What would he say?)

Eu falaria, sim. (I would say, yes.)


future subjunctive

Use the future subjunctive tense to talk about things that are likely to happen, but that have not yet occurred.

Me liga quando você chegar. (Call me when you arrive.)

Se eu ver ela te aviso. (If I see her I'll let you know.)

Assim que comprar um carro vou lá. (As soon as I buy a car I'll go there.)

Words that almost always trigger this tense:
quando + verb (when you…)
se + verb (if you…)
assim que (as soon as…)


future subjunctive – irregular verbs

These are the most common irregulars in the future subjunctive tense.

ter » Se voce tiver tempo me liga. If you have time, call me.

fazer » Se voce fizer um bolo vou ficar feliz. If you make a cake I'll be happy!

querer » Se voce quiser eu pago. If you want, I'll pay.

ir » Quando eu for ao centro. When I go downtown.

ser » Se for um bom preço eu compraria. If it were a good price I'd buy it.

estar » Me fala quando voce estiver pronto. Tell me when you're ready.


imperative mood

> For AR regular verbs you just replace the a with an e.
> For ER & IR regular verbs you just replace the e with an a.

Forming

-ar regular verbs

Tell me everything! Me cont e tudo!
Stop! Par e
Think again! Pens e bem!

-er and -ir regular verbs

Get out of here! Sum a daqui!
Open this door! Abr a essa porta!
Learn this! Aprend a isso!
Answer me! Me respond a!
Some very common examples use the TU form (read the post for more explanation):

esperar > Me espera! (Wait for me!)

olhar > Olha só! (Just look!)

escutar > Escuta! (Listen!)

tirar > Tira sua mão! (Hands off!)

falar > Fala tu! (Talk to me!)

ligar > Me liga! (Call me!)


imperfect indicative tense

The imperfect indicative is used when talking about continuous or ongoing action in the past. Something that used to happen or, would (always) happen.

» Eu trabalhava no Banco do Brasil.

Or,

When I was younger I would always drink a few beers before going to a party.

» Quando eu era mais jovem eu sempre bebia umas cervejas antes de sair pra festa.

Things that used to happen or, would (always) happen, entendeu?

Forming
-ar regular verbs

I used to work eu trabalh ava
he used to work ele trabalh ava
we used to work nós trabalh ávamos
they used to work eles trabalh avam

-er and -ir regular verbs

I used to eat eu com ia
he used to eat ele com ia
we used to eat nós com íamos
they used to eat eles com iam

ar verbs > Trabalhava nessa empresa. (I used to work at that company.)

er verbs > Eu bebia todos os dias. (I used to drink every day.)

ir verbs > Eu dormia bem. (I used to sleep well.)

*Also called the Preterite Imperfect


imperfect subjunctive

Use the imperfect subjunctive tense to talk about things that are extremely unlikely to have happened or happen.
*Also called the Preterit Imperfect or, the Past Subjunctive.

Se eu soubesse... (If I knew / were to know...)

Se você falasse... (If you said / were to say...)

Se você tivessel... (If you had / were to have...)

It’s most often used together with the conditional:

Se eu soubesse tudo seria sábio. If I knew everything I'd be wise.

Se fosse ele eu te contaria. If it were he I would tell you.

Se eu tivesse tempo estudaria mais. If I have time I'd study more.


imperfect tense of estar

To express was.
When talking about action in the past, use the imperfect indicative tense of estar –> estava.

Eu estava almoçando quando você ligou. (I was having lunch when you called.)

Ela estava ocupada ontem. (She was busy yesterday.)

*Don’t use this to express was for talking about permanent things in the past (I was a young boy; She was a sick baby etc.) – use ser for that.


imperfect tense of ser

The imperfect indicative is used when talking about continuous or ongoing action in the past. Something that used to happen or, would (always) happen. Ser is irregular.

The only form you need to know is this: ser > era

Ela era uma criança tranquila. (She was a quiet child.)

Era uma vez. (Once upon a time.)


imperfect tense of ter

The imperfect indicative is used when talking about continuous or ongoing action in the past. Something that used to happen or, would (always) happen. Ter is irregular.

The only form you need to know is this: ter > tinha

Eu tinha muito dinheiro. (I had lots of money.)


past participles

A past participle is just a verb conjugation that describes something that is over and done: written, said, cooked, closed etc.

A porta está aberta. (The door is opened.)

O projeto é completado. (The project is completed.)

Ela está cansada. (She's tired.)

Ele foi morto. (He was killed.)

*The endings must take the gender of the subject:
a porta está aberta
o escritório está aberto


present perfect

To say “I’ve been working every weekend” you use the present perfect verb form. Just use TER + past participle of any
(the present perfect indicative)
VERB:

eu > Eu tenho trabalhado todo dia. (I've been working every day.)

você > Você tem treinado? (Have you been training?)

ele/ela > Ela tem saído muito! (She's been going out a lot!)

You only need to modify TER to match the subject.


present progressive tense

Use this to say what’s happening right now: I’m working, He’s surfing, You’re talking, etc. (often called the Portuguese “ing”).

ESTAR + verb with ending:
ar verbs » ando
er verbs » endo
ir verbs » indo

-ar verbs
I’m arriving Eu estou cheg ando
Who’s talking? Quem está fal ando?
-er verbs
I’m eating. Eu estou com endo
He’s losing. Ele está perd endo
-ir verbs
I’m insisting. Eu estou insist indo
She’s driving. Ela está dirig indo
*This is often called the gerund.

Eu estou trabalhando agora. (I'm working now.)

Você está comendo açúcar? (Are you eating sugar?)

Ele está dirigindo. (He's driving.)


present subjunctive

Use the present subjunctive tense to talk about things that are plausible yet uncertain to happen right now: in the present.

Eu espero que você pense melhor. (I hope that you think better.)

Você quer que eu dirija? (Do you want me to drive?)

É importante que você aprenda. (It's important that you learn.)

Words that usually trigger this tense:
espero que (I hope that…)
quero que (I want that…)
é importante que (It’s important that…)

Forming

Take the 1st-person present root and add an:
+e for ar verbs
+a for er/ir verbs

Example: ACONTECER » Eu não quero que aconteça novamente.
the 1st-person present is: eu aconteço;
the root is aconteç;
adding an a » aconteça.

Example: FALAR » Espero que ele fale logo.
the 1st-person present is: eu falo;
the root is fal;
adding an e » fale.

Example: FAZER » Espero que ele faça.
the 1st-person present is: eu faço;
the root is faç;
adding an a » faça.


present tense

There are three main verb groups in Portuguese.

Verbs ending in -ar

falar to speak
I speak eu fal o
you/he/she speaks você/ele/ela fal a

Verbs ending in -er

entender to understand
I understand eu entend o
you/he/she understands você/ele/ela entend e

Verbs ending in -ir

partir to depart
I depart eu part o
you/he/she departs você/ele/ela part e

present tense ~ar verbs

to say, speak falar
I say eu fal o
you/he/she say(s) você/ele/ela fal a
we say nós fal amos
they/you all say eles/elas fal am

* More accurately called, the present indicative tense.


present tense ~er verbs

to eat comer
I eat eu com o
you/he/she eat(s) você/ele/ela com e
we eat nós com emos
they/you all eat eles/elas com em

* More accurately called, the present indicative tense.


present tense ~ir verbs

to leave, depart partir
I leave eu part o
you/he/she leave(s) você/ele/ela part e
we leave nós part imos
they/you all leave eles/elas part em

* More accurately called, the present indicative tense.


present tense of ser

Ser is very irregular.

to be (permanent) ser
I am eu  sou
you/he/she are/is você/ele/ela  é
we are nós  somos
they/you all are eles/elas  são

* More accurately called, the present indicative tense.


present tense: descobrir, sair

Some popular irregular verbs in the present tense.

to discover descobrir
I discover eu desc ubro
you/he/she discover(s) você/ele/ela desc obre
to go out, leave sair
I leave eu sai o
you/he/she leave(s) você/ele/ela sai

* More accurately called, the present indicative tense.


present tense: perder, pedir, dormir

Some popular irregular verbs in the present tense.

to lose perder
I lose eu per co
you/he/she lose(s) você/ele/ela per de
to ask for, request pedir
I ask for eu pe ço
you/he/she ask(s) for você/ele/ela pe de
to sleep dormir
I sleep eu d urmo
you/he/she sleep(s) você/ele/ela d orme

* More accurately called, the present indicative tense.


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