verb tenses

conditional tense

To say, would you add an ia to the verb’s infinitive. The irregulars are not that difficult to learn.

Ele trabalharia hoje mas... (He would work today but...)

O que ele diria? (What would he say?)

Eu falaria, sim. (I would say, yes.)


future subjunctive

Use the future subjunctive tense to talk about things that are likely to happen, but that have not yet occurred.

Me liga quando você chegar. (Call me when you arrive.)

Se eu ver ela te aviso. (If I see her I'll let you know.)

Assim que comprar um carro vou lá. (As soon as I buy a car I'll go there.)

Words that almost always trigger this tense:
quando + verb (when you…)
se + verb (if you…)
assim que (as soon as…)


future subjunctive – irregular verbs

These are the most common irregulars in the future subjunctive tense.

ter » Se voce tiver tempo me liga. If you have time, call me.

fazer » Se voce fizer um bolo vou ficar feliz. If you make a cake I'll be happy!

querer » Se voce quiser eu pago. If you want, I'll pay.

ir » Quando eu for ao centro. When I go downtown.

ser » Se for um bom preço eu compraria. If it were a good price I'd buy it.

estar » Me fala quando voce estiver pronto. Tell me when you're ready.


imperative mood

» For AR regular verbs you just replace the a with an e.
» For ER & IR regular verbs you just replace the e with an a.

Forming

-ar regular verbs

Tell me everything! Me cont e tudo!
Stop! Par e!
Think again! Pens e bem!

-er and -ir regular verbs

Get out of here! Sum a daqui!
Open this door! Abr a essa porta!
Learn this! Aprend a isso!
Answer me! Me respond a!
Some very common examples use the TU form (read the post for more explanation):

esperar » Me espera! (Wait for me!)

olhar » Olha só! (Just look!)

escutar » Escuta! (Listen!)

tirar » Tira sua mão! (Hands off!)

falar » Fala tu! (Talk to me!)

ligar » Me liga! (Call me!)

ter » Vem cá! (Come here!)


imperfect indicative tense

The imperfect indicative is used when talking about continuous or ongoing action in the past. Something that used to happen or, would (always) happen.
*Also called the Preterit Imperfect tense.

» Eu trabalhava no Banco do Brasil.

Or,

When I was younger I would always drink a few beers before going to a party.

» Quando eu era mais jovem eu sempre bebia umas cervejas antes de sair pra festa.

Things that used to happen or, would (always) happen, entendeu?

Forming
-ar regular verbs

I used to work eu trabalh ava
he used to work ele trabalh ava
we used to work nós trabalh ávamos
they used to work eles trabalh avam

-er and -ir regular verbs

I used to eat eu com ia
he used to eat ele com ia
we used to eat nós com íamos
they used to eat eles com iam

ar verbs > Trabalhava nessa empresa. (I used to work at that company.)

er verbs > Eu bebia todos os dias. (I used to drink every day.)

ir verbs > Eu dormia bem. (I used to sleep well.)

*Also called the Preterite Imperfect


imperfect subjunctive

Use the imperfect subjunctive tense to talk about things that are extremely unlikely to have happened or happen.
*Also called the Preterit Imperfect or, the Past Subjunctive.

Se eu soubesse... (If I knew / were to know...)

Se você falasse... (If you said / were to say...)

Se você tivessel... (If you had / were to have...)

It’s most often used together with the conditional:

Se eu soubesse tudo seria sábio. If I knew everything I'd be wise.

Se fosse ele eu te contaria. If it were he I would tell you.

Se eu tivesse tempo estudaria mais. If I have time I'd study more.


imperfect subjunctive + conditional

The imperfect subjunctive tense is used to talk about things that are extremely unlikely to have happened or happen. It’s most often used together with the conditional tense:

Se eu soubesse tudo seria sábio. (If I knew everything I'd be wise.)

Se fosse ele eu te contaria. (If it were he I would tell you.)

Se eu tivesse tempo estudaria mais. (If I have time I'd study more.)


imperfect tense of estar

To express was.
When talking about action in the past, use the imperfect indicative tense of estar –> estava.

Eu estava almoçando quando você ligou. (I was having lunch when you called.)

Ela estava ocupada ontem. (She was busy yesterday.)

*Don’t use this to express was for talking about permanent things in the past (I was a young boy; She was a sick baby etc.) – use ser for that.


imperfect tense of ser

The imperfect indicative is used when talking about continuous or ongoing action in the past. Something that used to happen or, would (always) happen. Ser is irregular.

The only form you need to know is this: ser > era

Ela era uma criança tranquila. (She was a quiet child.)

Era uma vez. (Once upon a time.)


imperfect tense of ter

The imperfect indicative is used when talking about continuous or ongoing action in the past. Something that used to happen or, would (always) happen. Ter is irregular.

The only form you need to know is this: ter > tinha

Eu tinha muito dinheiro. (I had lots of money.)


past participles

A past participle is just a verb conjugation that describes something that is over and done: written, said, cooked, closed etc.

A porta está aberta. (The door is opened.)

O projeto é completado. (The project is completed.)

Ela está cansada. (She's tired.)

Ele foi morto. (He was killed.)

*The endings must take the gender of the subject:
a porta está aberta
o escritório está aberto


present indicative irregulars

There are plenty of irregular verbs in the present tense (the present indicative). These are the essential ones that you have to memorize.

Verbs ending in -ar

estar to be
I am eu estou
you/he/she is você/ele/ela está
we are nós estamos
you all/they are vocês/eles/elas estão


dar to give
I give eu dou
you/he/she gives você/ele/ela dá
we give nós damos
you all/they give vocês/eles/elas dão

Verbs ending in -er

dizer to say, speak
I say eu digo
you/he/she says você/ele/ela diz
we say nós dizemos
you all/they say vocês/eles/elas dizem


fazer to do, make
I do/make eu faço
you/he/she does/makes você/ele/ela faz
we do/make nós fazemos
you all/they do/make vocês/eles/elas fazem


ler to read
I read eu leio
you/he/she reads você/ele/ela lê
we read nós lemos
you all/they read vocês/eles/elas leem


poder to be able, can
I can eu posso
you/he/she can você/ele/ela pode
we can nós podemos
you all/they can vocês/eles/elas podem


querer to want
I want eu quero
you/he/she wants você/ele/ela quer
we want nós queremos
you all/they want vocês/eles/elas querem


ser to be
I am eu sou
you/he/she is você/ele/ela é
we are nós somos
you all/they are vocês/eles/elas são


ter to have
I have eu tenho
you/he/she has você/ele/ela tem
we have nós temos
you all/they have vocês/eles/elas têm


trazer to bring
I bring eu trago
you/he/she brings você/ele/ela traz
we bring nós trazemos
you all/they bring vocês/eles/elas trazem


ver to see
I see eu vejo
you/he/she sees você/ele/ela vê
we see nós vemos
you all/they see vocês/eles/elas veem


Verbs ending in -ir

ir to go
I go eu vou
you/he/she goes você/ele/ela vai
we go nós vamos
you all/they go vocês/eles/elas vão


vir to come
I come eu venho
you/he/she comes você/ele/ela vem
we come nós vimos
you all/they come vocês/eles/elas vêm


ouvir to hear
I hear eu ouço
you/he/she hears você/ele/ela ouve
we hear nós ouvimos
you all/they hear vocês/eles/elas ouvem

present perfect

The Present Perfect is used to talk about action that’s on-going: what has been happening.

For example, to say things like “I’ve been working every weekend” the Present Perfect is the way to go.

Just use TER + the past participle of any verb. TER is always in the present tense.

eu > Eu tenho trabalhado todo dia. (I've been working every day.)

você > Você tem treinado? (Have you been training?)

ele/ela > Ela tem saído muito! (She's been going out a lot!)


present subjunctive

Use the present subjunctive tense to talk about things that are plausible yet uncertain to happen right now: in the present.

Eu espero que você pense melhor. (I hope that you think better.)

Você quer que eu dirija? (Do you want me to drive?)

É importante que você aprenda. (It's important that you learn.)

Words that usually trigger this tense:
espero que (I hope that…)
quero que (I want that…)
é importante que (It’s important that…)

Forming

Take the 1st-person present root and add an:
+e for ar verbs
+a for er/ir verbs

Example: ACONTECER » Eu não quero que aconteça novamente.
the 1st-person present is: eu aconteço;
the root is aconteç;
adding an a » aconteça.

Example: FALAR » Espero que ele fale logo.
the 1st-person present is: eu falo;
the root is fal;
adding an e » fale.

Example: FAZER » Espero que ele faça.
the 1st-person present is: eu faço;
the root is faç;
adding an a » faça.

SER in the Present Subjunctive

SER becomes seja in this tense and is widely used to express that you hope something will be – will come to pass.


present tense ~ar verbs

to say, speak falar
I say eu fal o
you/he/she say(s) você/ele/ela fal a
we say nós fal amos
they/you all say eles/elas fal am

* More accurately called, the present indicative tense.


present tense ~er verbs

to eat comer
I eat eu com o
you/he/she eat(s) você/ele/ela com e
we eat nós com emos
they/you all eat eles/elas com em

* More accurately called, the present indicative tense.

COMER É a hora de comer! It's time to eat!

BATER Vamos bater papo online depois. Let's chat online later.

ACONTECER Nunca vai acontecer. It's never going to happen.

There are plenty of irregulars. The most common are:
SER
TER
PODER
FAZER
DIZER
SABER
QUERER

These are best learned with flashcards.

QUERER Quer alguma coisa? Do you want something?

FAZER Não faço ideia. I've no idea.

TER Eu tenho muita coisa para fazer. I have many things to do.


present tense ~ir verbs

There aren’t many ~ir verbs. The most common include:
ir
vir
sair
cair
abrir
pedir
seguir
dormir
partir
servir
decidir
repetir
proibir
assistir
despedir
permitir
conseguir

to leave, depart partir
I leave eu part o
you/he/she leave(s) você/ele/ela part e
we leave nós part imos
they/you all leave eles/elas part em

* More accurately called, the present indicative tense.

SAIR Eu quase nao saio a noite. I hardly go out at night.

ASSISTIR Eu nem assisto TV I don't even watch TV.

DORMIR O Bebe dorme a noite toda. The baby sleeps all night long.

REPETIR Você pode repetir (por favor)? Can you repeat that (please)?

Many of these are IRREGULAR.

VIR Vem com a gente. Com with us.

IR Eu vou esperar na minha casa. I'm going to wait at my house.

PEDIR Eu sempre peço a mesma coisa. I always order the same thing.


present tense of ser

Ser is very irregular.

to be (permanent) ser
I am eu  sou
you/he/she are/is você/ele/ela  é
we are nós  somos
they/you all are eles/elas  são

* More accurately called, the present indicative tense.


present tense: descobrir, sair

Some popular irregular verbs in the present tense.

to discover descobrir
I discover eu desc ubro
you/he/she discover(s) você/ele/ela desc obre
to go out, leave sair
I leave eu sai o
you/he/she leave(s) você/ele/ela sai

* More accurately called, the present indicative tense.


present tense: perder, pedir, dormir

Some popular irregular verbs in the present tense.

to lose perder
I lose eu per co
you/he/she lose(s) você/ele/ela per de
to ask for, request pedir
I ask for eu pe ço
you/he/she ask(s) for você/ele/ela pe de
to sleep dormir
I sleep eu d urmo
you/he/she sleep(s) você/ele/ela d orme

* More accurately called, the present indicative tense.


present vs. past: pedir, ouvir

PEDIR and OUVIR have similar ~irregulr conjugations in the present and the simple past. These are very common verbs and worth remembering!

Present tense

pedir > Eu peço desculpas amiga (Excuse me my friend.)

ouvir > Eu ouço bem. (I hear well.)

Past tense

*this is the preterit indicative tense.

pedir > Eu pedi uma Coca-Cola. (I ordered a Coca-Cola.)

ouvir > Eu ouvi um barulho. (I heard a noise.)


seria

SER = to be.
Seria is the conditional form: would be.

Seria um ou dois? (Would that be one, or two?)

Seria mais difícil assim. (It would be more difficult like that.)

Seria uma ótima ideia. (it would be a great idea.)


simple past tense ~ar verbs

“simple past” = action that is over and done.
This is called, the preterit indicative tense.

to speak falar
I said eu fal ei
you/he/she said você/ele/ela fal ou
we said nós fal amos
they/you all said eles/elas fal aram

simple past tense ~er verbs

The “simple past” = action that is over and done. Officially called the Preterit Indicative tense.

to eat comer
I ate eu com i
you/he/she ate você/ele/ela com eu
we ate nós com emos
they/you all ate eles/elas com eram

(eu) Eu entendi tudo. I understood everything.

(você, ele, ela) Ele nao entendeu. He didn't understand.


simple past tense ~ir verbs

The “simple past” = action that is over and done. Officially called the Preterit Indicative tense.

to leave, depart partir
I left eu part i
you/he/she left você/ele/ela part iu
we left nós part imos
they/you all leave eles/elas part iram

(eu) Eu consegui o apartamento! I got the apartment!

(você, ele, ela) Você conseguiu o emprego! You got the job!


simple past tense: ser, ir

The preterite of ser and ir ~ These two essential verbs are very irregular in the “simple past” tense. BUT – they’re exactly the same! Saying was or went, is usually written the same.

to be ser
I was eu f ui
you/he/she were (was) você/ele/ela f oi
to go ir
I went eu f ui
you/he/she went você/ele/ela f oi

IR » Foi muito bem. It went really well.

SER » Foi muito bom. It was really good.

IR » Fui! I went!

SER » A festa foi perfeita. The party was perfect.

IR » Nós fomos à praia ontem. We went to the beach yesterday.

SER » Foi um dia daqueles. It was one of those days.

IR » Eles foram fazer compras juntos. They went shopping together.

IR » Para onde ele foi? Where did he go?

* More accurately called, the preterit indicative tense.


simple past tense: ter, dizer, fazer

Some popular irregular verbs in the simple past tense.

to have ter
I had eu t ive
you/he/she had você/ele/ela t eve
to say, tell dizer
I said eu diss e
you/he/she said você/ele/ela diss e
to make, do fazer
I did eu f iz
you/he/she did você/ele/ela f ez

* More accurately called, the preterit indicative tense.


the Present Progressive

Use this to say what’s happening right now: I’m working, He’s surfing, You’re talking, etc. It’s often considered the Portuguese “ing”.

ESTAR + verb without the final “r” + ndo

~ar verb brinca ➜ brincando
~er verb correr ➜ corre ➜ correndo
~ir verb dormir ➜ dormi ➜ dormindo

NO IRREGULARS! 🥳 (ever)

-ar verbs
I’m arriving Eu estou cheg ando
Who’s talking? Quem está fal ando?
-er verbs
I’m eating. Eu estou com endo
He’s losing. Ele está perd endo
-ir verbs
I’m insisting. Eu estou insist indo
She’s driving. Ela está dirig indo
*You’ll hear this conjugation called the gerund.

Eu estou trabalhando agora. (I'm working now.)

Você está comendo açúcar? (Are you eating sugar?)

Ele está dirigindo. (He's driving.)


the preterit indicative tense

In Portuguese, the present tense verbs (formally called the preterite indicative) are divided into three groups: ar verbs, er verbs and ir verbs. All (well, almost!) verbs end in one of these.

Verbs ending in -ar

falar to speak
I speak eu fal o
you/he/she speaks você/ele/ela fal a

Verbs ending in -er

entender to understand
I understand eu entend o
you/he/she understands você/ele/ela entend e

Verbs ending in -ir

partir to depart
I depart eu part o
you/he/she departs você/ele/ela part e

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