I've been writing about how de hooks-up with certain verbs to change meaning or say specific things. Uma coisa linda! Now, let's look at what de does when coupled with with the words antes & depois.
I'm going to avoid the grammar-talk and not even use the word adverb again EXCEPT for this excerpt from some serious looking language site...
antes & depois & de, de, de
In English it's pretty simple.
I'll go shopping before noon.
I love to work out after work.
To say the same things in Portuguese, just add a de. Like this:
*Notice that we're saying ...antes de o meio dia which gets combined into ...antes do meio dia.
It's like you're saying before of & after of...
It's really the same thing we do when using words describing place & position: longe + de; perto + de; ao lado + de; em cima + de; de baixo + de... and so on.
Here come the verbs.
But what if a verb follows? What if you're describing action? The answer is simple: just add a de as shown above. But it's much harder to make sense of and thus - harder to recall. That's because when you pair a verb in it's infinitive with de this always translates to an ing word. Am I getting too grammarly? Nope. Besides, "ing-words" is street slang used by the Proud Boyz.
But seriously, the confusing thing is that you probably learned that to say something like: "I'm running" it's = Eu estou correndo. This is called the Present Progressive tense and it's also used to say "ing-words" BUT only when used with ESTAR. In other words: only when you're talking about DOING something right now (PRESENTLY) ~ action UNDERWAY. Any other way of using "ing-words" is done like this:
de + VERB
And, the VERB is in the infinitive!
de CORRER = running
de MALHAR = working-out
de ALMOÇAR = eating lunch (lunching!)
So let's do it - let's say things like, before running out of gas; after learning how to kiss properly; before learning to fly; after conquering Brazil...
*On each of these 2 you could say "leaving" either with SAIR (to go out, leave) or IR EMBORA (to go away, leave).
In general, SAIR means to go out - onto the street, see and be seen.
*Notice the reflexive pronoun, me.
antes & depois in their natural states.
Do antes & depois ever exist in their natural, native, un-vaccinated state? Sure! For example...
But beware! Look what happens the minute anything's added:
Let's look at some common examples...